• Visual advertising appeals affect consumers’ future purchase intention.
  • Images associated with emotional and physiological appeals lead to greater consumer purchase intention; images associated with rational appeals do not.
  • Higher levels of rational responses suppress the positive benefits of emotionally and physiologically based responses on purchase intention.
  • The positive association between emotional and physiological responses, on the one hand, and purchase intention, on the other, remain when rational responses are lower.


People rarely make decisions using only information available at the point of purchase, so consumer purchase decisions almost always rely on existing brand memories (Herz and Brunk, 2017; Mantonakis, Whittlesea, and Yoon, 2008; Roediger and Wertsch, 2008). “Brand memories” are defined as brand cues in consumers’ mind and are composed of general brand knowledge, brand associations, past brand interactions, virtual brand experiences, word-of-mouth communications, and various other forms of marketing promotions (Herz and Brunk, 2017; Keller, 1993; Kirshnan, 1996). Consumers use brand memories to develop brand images that guide purchase intention and future purchase decisions; brand memories are therefore key drivers of consumer preference building and brand equity (Herz and Brunk, 2017; Keller, 1993).